The "standard" reference for modern world bank notes! This 21st edition of the Standard Catalog of World Paper Money, Modern Issues, provides the most comprehensive and complete reference to world bank notes issued since 1961. This catalog reference features: 21,250 variety listings of world bank notes; 13,750 illustrations for easy identifications of bank notes and signature varieties; Bank note values in two popularly available conditions; Country signature charts for specific and accurate variety identification. A network of more than 80 world paper money collectors, dealers, researchers and national bank officials work with editor George S.Cuhaj to ensure that the Standard Catalog of World Paper Money, Modern Issues is the most informed, accurate and all-encompassing resource on the market for the proper identification, description and valuation of modern world bank notes.
Error notes continue to carve an ever larger niche in paper money collecting. This revised reference offers collectors a comprehensive catalog of known U.S. paper money errors and includes examples of each error and detailed information on paper money printing. Updated values are provided in up to three conditions. Errors are thoroughly described and depicted, including overprint, folding and first and second printing errors. Historical photographs from the Bureau of Engraving and Printing reveal rarely seen images of U.S. paper money workers inside the printing office.
Explore the inevitable collapse of the fiat monetary system Paper Money Collapse: The Folly of Elastic Money, Second Edition challenges the mainstream consensus on money and monetary policy. While it is today generally believed that the transition from 'hard' and inflexible commodity money (such as a gold standard) to entirely flexible and potentially unlimited fiat money under national central banks allows for superior economic stability, Paper Money Collapse shows that the opposite is true. Systems of highly elastic and constantly expanding money are not only unnecessary, even for growing economies, they are always extremely destabilizing. Over time, they must lead to substantial imbalances, including excessive levels of debt and distorted asset prices, that will require ever faster money production to sustain. Ultimately, however, there is no alternative to a complete liquidation of these distortions. Based on insights of many renowned economists and in particular of the Austrian School of Economics, the book explains through rigorous logic and in precise language why our system of flexible fiat money is incompatible with a market economy and therefore unsustainable. Paper money systems have always led to economic disintegration—without exception—throughout history. It will not be different for our system and we may be closer to the endgame than many think. The updated second edition incorporates: A new introduction and an extended outlook section that discusses various «endgames» Responses to criticisms, alternative views, and a critical assessment of 'solutions' Comments on recent policy trends, including attempts to exit the 'easy money' policy mode An evaluation of new crypto-currency Bitcoin Paper Money Collapse: The Folly of Elastic Money, Second Edition clarifies the problem of paper money clearly and eloquently, and proposes multiple routes to a solution.
This all-new 3rd edition of the Standard Catalog of World Coins: 1601 - 1700 represents a combination of thirty years of research, data accumulation, photography and persistence in providing a single, comprehensive catalog to which collectors can turn. The casual collector, specialist and dealer alike are provided with the latest information on market valuations reflecting our expanded database for the era of world coinage history. Easy References for Identification and Current Value Conversion Expanded Descriptions Illustrated Instant Identifiers Standard International Numeral Systems Clearly Defined Political Structures and Coinage Types Grading Terminology and Abbreviations Precious Metal Weights of Coins Hejira Date Conversion Chart Coin Denomination Index Foreign Exchange Rates Cross-Referenced Country Index Hundreds of New and Improved Images ____________________________ Последние цены на монеты всего мира с 1601 по 1700 удобно упорядочены по странам, состоянию монет. Каталог содержит более чем 20 000 фотографий.